summary Auagenesis The Origin and Evolution of Life in the Sea ↠ eBook ePUB or Kindle PDF

free download º eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ç Richard Ellis

free download º eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ç Richard Ellis Life on earth Origin and Epub #219 began in the sea and in this tour de force of natural history authority on marine biology and illustrator Richard Ellis chronicles than three billion years of auatic history From the first microbes and jawless fis. Author Richard Ellis in Auagenesis originally sought out to document in a popular science format how the ancestors of marine mammals reptiles and birds returned to the sea In the process of researching the book Ellis became intrigued with the phenomenon of life in the water from the origin of life itself which likely took place in water to the evolution of marine invertebrates and fish As result the scope of the book widened considerablyEllis recounted some of the theories about the origin of life The main one he reviewed was that life may have first appeared around hydrothermal vents in the deep sea perhaps from impact generated hydrothermal systems as for a period of about 200 million years very roughly between 39 and 38 billion years ago the Earth may have experienced as many as 10000 impacts by extraterrestrial bodies Not only would such environments have been plentiful but they would have aided by virtue of high temperatures the creation of organic compounds and would have been places shielded from ultraviolet radiationI found fascinating his discussion of the Ediacaran or Vendian fauna the oldest recorded animals fossils of soft bodied organisms that lived between 565 and 535 million years ago The Ediacaran fauna is unusual; many of these organisms come in strange shapes and sizes have no recognizable fronts backs heads tails circulatory nervous or digestive systems Many of them vaguely resembled modern jellyfish though they appear to have been benthic or bottom dwelling organisms ranging in size from a few millimeters to a meter in diameter One researcher Gregory Retallack according to Ellis believed that the Ediacarans were not soft bodied animals at all but rather a type of lichen with a sturdier structure made of substances not unlike chitin Another paleontologist Adolf Seilacher wrote that the Ediacarans are unrelated to any existing lifeform calling the Ediacarans as a group the vendozoans and postulated that their structure was rather like that of an air mattressThe much discussed Burgess Shale fauna is well covered in this book along with the highly publicized disagreements between the late Stephen J Gould who felt the bizarre fauna represented many weird wonderful failed experiments and Simon Conway Morris who felt that researchers had focused too much on the differences rather than the similarities of the Burgess Shale animals to known species and phylaEllis provided a good summary of suids octopi ammonites belemnites and the nautiloids including the five existing species of nautilus though much of his short section on trilobites uoted or paraphrased with due credit Richard Fortey's excellent book Trilobite I think he could have been much thorough though in his very brief discussion of the eurypterids sea scorpionsThe evolution of fish is given wonderful treatment accompanied by as is much of the text by Ellis' skillful black and white illustrations I found his coverage of the coelacanths particularly interesting noting some of the mysteries that even the living fish present such as the function of their rostral organ perhaps it is used to detect weak electrical fields I also enjoyed his section on bioluminescence something that still presents an enigma to biologists such as how the luminous bacteria that some species depend upon to light up in the ocean depths are acuired particularly if they cannot exist outside of their host and the young of the species are not born with the bacteria already present Also worthwhile was Ellis' reporting of the Bear Gulch Limestone Formation of Montana dating back to 320 million years ago from the Mississippian a truly excellent fossil site that has yielded 4500 specimens representing 113 species of fish many beautifully preserved A number of unusual fossils have been found there such as the shark Damocles serratus so named because of a dorsal spine with a serrated edge underneath one that hung over the head of the animal not unlike the sword that hung over the head of Damocles in ancient GreeceAlthough not marine animals the evolution of vertebrate limbs is covered as well Ellis summarized the writings of Jenny Clack and others noting the theory that the early amphibians used their legs not for terrestrial locomotion but for movement in the water or on river and lake bottoms and that the study of the origin of tetrapods and the invasion of land by vertebrate animals are two issues that according to researchers E B Daeschler and N Shubin need to be decoupledReptiles aren't given as much coverage as one might think While sea snakes crocodilians and sea turtles are very well covered the latter with a nice rundown of living species the Mesozoic marine reptiles are given short shrift Ellis has said in his subseuent book on Mesozoic marine reptiles Sea Dragons that he cut them out of Auagenesis due to space reuirementsThe evolution of penguins and particularly marine mammals sea otters seals walruses whales dolphins porpoises manatees and dugongs has some of the best coverage of any subject in the book Particularly interesting were the problems with the pinnipeds seals in the fossil record how they appear already to be fairly well specialized in the Miocene about 24 million years ago lacking much in the way of transitional forms; also the possibility of separate ancestors for the eared seals and walruses perhaps a bearlike progenitor and the earless seals maybe an otterlike ancestorNear the end Ellis presented the controversial Auatic Ape theory that humans descended from an ancestor that may have spent a fair amount of time in shallow coastal waters Citing evidence presented by Alister Hardy and Elaine Morgan that man may have had an auatic past the presence of large amounts of subcutaneous fat hairless bodies the only terrestrial mammals that can hold their breath that humans can swim almost from birth noses well adapted to keep out water from nasal cavities Ellis also recounted the opposition this theory has metThough I found a few errors in the book overall it was enjoyable

free read Auagenesis The Origin and Evolution of Life in the Sea

summary Auagenesis The Origin and Evolution of Life in the Sea ↠ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF õ [Reading] ➿ Auagenesis The Origin and Evolution of Life in the Sea By Richard Ellis – Life on earth began in the sea and in this tour de force of natural history authori Hes that evolved into the myriad species we know Auagenesis The MOBI #10003 today sharks whales dolphins and of course humans Ellis reveals the deep evolutionary mysteries of the sea Encyclopedic in scope and complemented by than sixty drawings Aua. I was super duper excited to read this book and it was absolutely fascinating I couldn't read the book in one sitting because I would get distracted picturing all of the organisms Ellis mentioned or drew I loved this book nonetheless and if any of you are interested in fossils and the ocean definitely read this book

Richard Ellis ç 8 download

Auagenesis The Origin and Evolution of Life in the SeaGenesis is a fascinating work that will astonish readers with the wonder richness and complexity of the evolution of life uite simply The Origin and PDFEPUB #228 the best account we now have of the origins of human life Te Christian Science Monitor. A little slow at a few moments but I actually found most of this book super fascinating especially the parts about the Burgess Shale fossils and the evolution of whales and dolphins And I really enjoyed the way that Ellis lays things out starting with the oldest and smallest known organisms and working up to the whales He explains things in a really interesting way as well; I'll definitely read of his work